What Are Rare Earth Magnets Used For?
What Are Rare Earth Magnets Used For?
Rare earth magnets play an essential part of the global climate economy.
Permanent magnets made of processed minerals boasting high energy-to-weight ratios are key components in climate economy products such as electric vehicles (EVs) and renewable energy, as well as being part of the global supply chain.
Neodymium, also known as Nd2Fe14B or NIB, is the strongest and most widely-used rare earth magnet. It can be found in applications ranging from electric motors for cordless tools and hard disk drives, magnetic holddowns in jewelry pieces, magnetic clasps on sports equipment - the list goes on!
Nd2Fe14B, an alloy composed of neodymium, iron and boron that exhibits magnetic properties several times stronger than alnico or ferrite magnets, boasts magnetic dipole moments much larger than iron's dipole moments, which allows it to produce an extremely strong magnetic field and makes this magnet material so important.
Neodymium magnets are not only some of the strongest available but are also exceptionally heat resistant - capable of withstanding temperatures up to 212 degrees F without losing their magnetic field, providing manufacturers and industrial applications an advantage in dealing with extreme conditions.
Rare earth magnets are well known for their resistance to demagnetization, meaning that they don't lose strength as quickly. Standard magnets typically experience 5% magnetic strength loss every 100 years while rare earth magnets only experience fractional losses in strength.
Strong magnets have many applications in engineering and construction projects as well as art and science projects, from lifting heavy steel balls to hanging artwork in galleries, schools, or restaurants. Their lifting power makes them particularly effective at lifting ferrous objects like balls. They can even help lift heavy appliances.
Commonly utilized magnetic separation systems used to eliminate contamination by ferrous and paramagnetic materials from production lines are widely utilized by food, chemical and pharmaceutical industries.
Neodymium magnets can also be used in magnetic levitation experiments, which involve attaching a small magnet to a piece of diamagnetic material and then lifting thousands of times its own weight with their incredible strength. Neodymium magnets make excellent choices for DIY experiments.
Samarium Cobalt (SmCo) magnets are among the strongest known permanent rare earth magnets, closely rivaling NdFeB magnets in terms of strength. Additionally, they offer several additional advantages that make them popular choices for various applications.
These magnets are typically manufactured through sintering, in which a powdered alloy of samarium and cobalt is compressed into shape under an electromagnetic field before sintered at approximately 1100 degrees C in an induction furnace, producing an extremely strong magnet with superior coercivity, high temperature stability and excellent corrosion resistance.
There are a few main types of samarium cobalt magnets, depending on the ratio between samarium and cobalt atoms. These include the Sm1Co5 (1-5), which has a maximum energy product of 15-24 MGOe; and 2-17 magnets, with maximum energy products between 22-32 MGOe and an increased operating temperature.
SmCo materials are typically utilized in applications that demand extremely high heat resistance, such as motors or for sensing purposes, with temperatures reaching 525degF (300degC).
SmCo can be designed into different shapes, sizes and grades that meet a range of application needs. Its most common variant combines an alloy composed of 35% Samarium with 60% Cobalt as the core constituents, along with other metals like Iron, Copper, Hafnium or Zinc in various quantities.
As samarium cobalt is an extremely fragile material, it can be challenging to work with. Machining requires using multiple diamond grinding wheels with water coolant in order to prevent chipping; additionally, any generated dust from this process can spontaneously ignite when left on its own if left in dry conditions - which highlights why handling these magnets with care in order to prevent injury or damage while keeping them away from children is of utmost importance.
Ceramic material is a crystalline glassy substance with hard, chemically inert properties that is used for various things including pots and dishes as well as electronics applications - it may even be semiconducting, superconducting, ferroelectric or insulating depending on its composition. Ceramic can also be formed into various shapes by shaping it using heat. Ceramic can also be made semiconductive depending on its composition. Its uses in manufacturing include pots and dishes but is also an increasingly popular material used for electronics components.
Rare earth magnets are highly powerful magnets found in many modern gadgets, from assist motors for power-assisted bicycles and elevator wind-up motors, to bar code scanners. Rare earth magnets also help improve television image quality by redirecting electrons back toward the screen for improved picture quality.
Magnets are also an integral component of many devices' audio systems; they're the source of that buzzing sound when your phone vibrates mode is enabled.
While most magnets are constructed using rare earth metals, there is another less-popular permanent magnet option called ceramic magnets that does not rely on any rare earth materials for strength. Though weaker in terms of performance compared to their rare earth counterparts, ceramic magnets tend to be significantly more durable and cost-effective solutions than rare earth magnets.
Ceramic was once only considered useful as an element for pottery production, but today its versatility makes it one of the primary materials used across a range of applications beyond simply pots and dishes.
These advanced materials can be utilized for an array of uses, from medical implants to developing semiconductors. Their properties play an integral role in their suitability for various tasks; therefore they should be carefully considered prior to use.
Ceramography, or ceramic analysis and characterisation, is a branch of ceramic science dedicated to preparation and characterisation of ceramic materials. This process employs several techniques for assessing and comparing microstructures of different ceramic varieties, providing engineers and designers with valuable information on ensuring that their products have only superior quality materials in them.
Ceramics are typically formed of raw materials ground into specific particle sizes, dried, then heated in a furnace, before being treated to achieve specific technical properties, such as elasticity, tensile strength, compressive strength, shear strength fracture toughness/ductility (low brittle materials), indentation hardness and positive thermal coefficient. They then can be used in spark plugs, artificial joints, space shuttle tiles cooktops micropositioners and chemical sensors among many other uses.
Rare earth magnets have numerous applications. They're used in computers, smartphones, electric cars and industrial machinery - as well as being an integral component of defense technology.
Magnets are composed of rare earth elements such as neodymium and samarium, two of the more popular choices. Extracted from ore, these rare earths can be combined with transition metals to produce magnet alloys with high magnetic strength that retain their magnetism even at higher temperatures - making them useful in many different applications.
Neodymium and samarium-cobalt magnets are two of the most frequently utilized types of rare earth magnets. Both kinds use an alloy composed of neodymium, iron and boron with various amounts of dysprosium and praseodymium added for added power.
Both materials offer their own set of benefits and drawbacks, so manufacturers must choose wisely when selecting materials for applications. Neodymium magnets tend to be much stronger than their samarium-cobalt counterparts but tend to be much more costly; additionally, they tend to be fragile so manufacturers often coat them in order to make them resistant to breaking or chipping.
Samarium cobalt magnets tend to be less powerful and cheaper than their neodymium counterparts, yet are more resistant to corrosion. Due to this trait, these types of magnets tend to break less easily when dropped or thrown; making them suitable for applications requiring minimal physical strength.
Lightweight motors like those found in electric bikes make for compact designs with increased pedaling efficiency.
These magnets can also be found in bar code readers, which use magnets to scan information from bar codes and display it on computer screens. Such readers are frequently found in grocery stores, shopping malls and public spaces.
Rare earth magnet manufacturing involves using both water and electricity, leading to pollution issues and waste disposal problems. Furthermore, workers may develop respiratory ailments in their workplace while sulfur dioxide emissions release into the air can pose health concerns for all involved.