Generic Terminologies Related to Magnetism:
- A magnet is an object or material that produces a magnetic field. This field is invisible but is responsible for the most notable property of a magnet: the force that pulls on other ferromagnetic materials, such as iron, and attracts or repels other magnets.
- Magnets can be natural, like lodestones, or man-made. The most common types of man-made magnets are permanent magnets (like fridge magnets) and electromagnets.
- The term "magnetic" refers to the properties and characteristics of materials influenced by magnetism or a magnetic field.
- When something is described as magnetic, it typically means it exhibits properties of attraction or repulsion similar to a magnet.
- Magnetic materials are usually those containing iron, nickel, or cobalt, which can be attracted to a magnet.
- Magnetism is a physical phenomenon produced by the motion of electric charge, resulting in attractive and repulsive forces between objects.
- It is one of the fundamental forces of nature, alongside gravity, strong nuclear force, and weak nuclear force.
- Magnetism is responsible for the forces that magnets exert and is closely related to electricity.
4. Magnetic Field: The invisible force field around a magnet, where magnetic forces are exerted.
5. Magnetic Flux: The total magnetic field that passes through a given area.
6. Gauss: Gauss is a unit of measurement for magnetic flux density or magnetic induction, named after the German mathematician and physicist Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss, and is commonly used to describe the strength of magnetic fields. Gauss is often used for smaller or weaker magnetic fields comparing with Tesla.
7. Tesla: Tesla is the SI unit of magnetic flux density (or magnetic induction), representing the strength of a magnetic field, with one Tesla being equal to one Weber per square meter. One Tesla is equivalent to 10,000 Gauss.
- Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles.
- It combines the study of electricity and magnetism as a single phenomenon. For example, an electric current flowing in a wire produces a magnetic field around the wire.
- Electromagnetism is fundamental to the structure of matter and the interaction of light with substances. It’s also the principle behind electromagnets – magnets in which the magnetic field is produced by an electric current.
Each of these terms plays a crucial role in our understanding of the physical world, with applications ranging from everyday items like refrigerator magnets to sophisticated technologies like electric motors and generators.
Terminologies Related to the Permanent Magnets
The terminologies related to permanent magnets are essential for understanding their properties and applications. Here are some key terms:
1. Magnetization: The process of making a material magnetic or the degree to which a material is magnetic.
2. Remanence (Residual Magnetism): The magnetization left in a ferromagnetic material after an external magnetic field is removed.
3. Coercivity (Coercive Force): The intensity of the external magnetic field required to reduce the magnetization of a material to zero after it has been magnetized to saturation.
4. Intrinsic Coercivity: A measure of a material's resistance to being demagnetized. It’s the coercive force when the internal magnetization is reversed, but the external magnetic field is not strong enough to completely demagnetize the material.
5. Maximum Energy Product (BH Max): The highest value of magnetic energy density in the magnet, representing the strongest point on its demagnetization curve. It's a key indicator of the magnet's strength.
6. Maximum Working Temperature: Maximum working temperature refers to the highest temperature at which a material, such as a magnet, can operate without losing its fundamental properties or experiencing permanent damage or alteration in performance.
7. Curie Temperature: The temperature at which a permanent magnet loses its magnetism.
8. Saturation Magnetization: The maximum magnetization a material can achieve under an external magnetic field.
9. Hysteresis Loop: The curve that shows the relationship between the induced magnetic flux density and the external magnetic field. It describes the magnet's behavior when it's magnetized and demagnetized.
10. Ferromagnetic Materials: Materials like iron, nickel, and cobalt that can be magnetized to become permanent magnets.
11. Rare Earth Magnets: Powerful permanent magnets made from alloys of rare earth elements, primarily Neodymium and Samarium Cobalt.
12. Neodymium Magnets (NdFeB): A type of rare earth magnet made from an alloy of neodymium, iron, and boron, known for having the highest energy product of any material.
13. Samarium Cobalt Magnets (SmCo): Another type of rare earth magnet, known for its high temperature stability and corrosion resistance.
14. Aluminum-Nickel-Cobalt Magnets (AlNiCo): AlNiCo magnets are a type of permanent magnet made from an alloy of aluminum, nickel, and cobalt, known for their high thermal stability and resistance to corrosion, making them ideal for applications requiring performance under extreme temperatures and environmental conditions.
15. Ceramic Magnets or Hard Ferrite Magnets: Ceramic magnets, also known as ferrite magnets, are a type of permanent magnet made from a composite of iron oxide and barium or strontium carbonate, offering good resistance to demagnetization and corrosion at a lower cost.
16. Bonded Magnets: Bonded magnets are composite materials made by embedding magnetic particles into a binder matrix, typically plastic or rubber, allowing for more flexible shapes and sizes with moderate magnetic strength.
17. Flexible Magnets: Flexible magnets are a type of magnet made from a combination of ferrite powder and rubber or plastic, which can be easily cut, bent, or twisted, making them versatile for various applications like refrigerator magnets, signage, and automotive uses. when they are made of rubber, they are also called rubber magnets.
Understanding these terms is crucial for anyone working with or studying permanent magnets, as they describe the fundamental properties and behaviors of these materials.